Citations and standards


Plagiarism is a serious violation of core academic ethics, it is included among misdemeanours in Disciplinary code for Faculty of Social Studies.

More about plagiarism here.

In order to avoid plagiarism, always cite sources correctly. If you want to cite source correctly, you must adhere to the guidelines of chosen citation style. 

Citation styles

Different academic disciplines have specific guidelines for organizing material and citing sources. These sets of rules are called citation styles. While each citation style is distinct, the underlying rationale is the same.

Each scientific paper has to contain footnotes and the list of used sources at the end. Sources stated in paper and the list of sources have to correspond.


There are two main methods of using citations in the text. The references are either stated in a separate text of the work in round brackets, or by inserting the “footnote” (at the bottom of the page), or eventually “explanatory notes” (at the end of the whole text). More details on particular citation norms below.

List of sources

In the list of sources, there is often distinguished between “sources” (laws, newspaper articles, contracts, various documents, interviews, and the like) and “literature” (scholarly articles, monographs, work collections, and the like).

The list of sources is sorted alphabetically. As long as we work with several works from the same author or responsible authority, we sort them chronologically according to the date.

For example.:

Kříž, Zdeněk. 2004. „MediationofInterestsofActive Duty Soldiers in the Political System of the Czech Republic." Středovevopské politické studie 6, no. 4, (accessed September 30, 2011).

Kříž, Zdeněk. 2008. „Transformation NATO and the Summit in Bucharest." Obrana a strategie 8, no. 1: 17-29.

In case we work with two or more sources from the same responsible authority and with the same year of publication, we use lowercase letters of the alphabet, which we place behind the year of publication, to distinguish them. 

For example:
In the list:
OECD. 2001a...
OECD. 2001b...

In quotation: (OECD 2001b, 34)

Citation format, citation norms and styles

There are many various citation norms. Whether we choose any citation norm for a paper (most preferably in the field of social sciences), it is crucial to use it consistently in the whole work and not to combine it with other norms. It is also recommended for students to study the ethical principles of citation and publication, to stick to these principles and avoid plagiarism. It is necessary to state the data as specified by the norm so that the source can be easily traced.   

For the students of the Department of International Relations and European Studies it is recommended to use these norms:

  1. Chicago style
    online Manual

  2. APA style

  3. MLA style

To collect and organize your sources and to automatically generate citations you can use reference management software, e.g.:

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